A solar ladekontroller refers to a regulator that prevents a solar battery from overcharging. Batteries have a specific voltage capacity, exceeding which may cause to permanent battery damage and functionality loss. A solar charge controller supports your battery storage system to keep the batteries properly charged and safe for a long time.
The primary functions of a solar controller include blocking reverse current and preventing overcharging of the battery. The other functions include preventing battery over-discharge, protecting the battery from electrical overload, displaying battery status and power flow.
Types of Solar Ladekontroller
- Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Solar Controllers
PWM controllers are the standard charge controllers that are less expensive. As it approaches capacity, it works by reducing the power going into the battery. When the battery is full, the controller constantly supplies a tiny amount of power to keep the battery charged.
Your solar panel system and your home battery should have matching voltages with a PWM controller. These controllers are more suitable for small DIY solar systems having a small battery and low voltage panels.
- Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Controllers
MPPT controllers are expensive complex charge controllers. They provide similar protection just like the PWM controllers and reduce the power flow to your home battery. These controllers can pair with panels and batteries having non-matching voltages.
MPPT controllers adjust their input and output power with your solar panel system and the attached battery. This is why MPPT solar controllers are considered more efficient in utilizing the full power of your solar panels to charge your home battery.
Is installation of a solar charge controller right for you?
As a solar shopper, you need not worry about charge controllers. Perhaps it may be a roof-top or ground-mount solar installation, the battery backup and the electric grid are always linked. When your battery fills up, the excess solar energy automatically reroutes. Installing a solar charge controller ensures the safety of your battery.
Functions of Solar Ladekontroller
Block Reverse Current
Solar panels function by passing a current through your battery in a single direction. The panels may pass small amounts of current in the reverse direction at night, causing battery discharge. A solar controller helps to prevent it.
Most of the controllers pass their charge current through a transistor only in one direction. It also acts as a support system to control the current. Hence, it blocks the reverse current efficiently and cost-effectively.
Prevent Battery Overcharge
The battery voltage gets too high when incoming energy continues even after a battery reaches full charge. It leads to rapid battery degradation and overheating. It can also cause shut down of your inverter due to excessive voltage.
Solar controllers help in voltage regulations. They reduce the flow of energy to the battery on reaching a specific voltage. And it allows the maximum energy flow when the voltage drops. This is the most important function of every solar controller.
Some controllers have the feature of temperature compensation. A battery’s temperature varies from the ideal voltage points for charge control. A Solar Ladekontroller raises the voltage point on a sensation of low battery temperature. It also reduces the charge in case of a cold battery.
A controller with a built-in temperature sensor, must be installed in a place where the temperature is closer to the battery. The voltage set points can also be manually adjusted according to the seasons.
A circuit overloading happens when the current flow is higher. This leads to overheating and eventually a fire hazard. A short circuit in the wiring or a faulty appliance can cause overload. In such cases, charge controllers having built-in overload protection can be useful.
Most manufacturers offer high-quality batteries with low voltage disconnect, proper voltage regulation, and temperature compensation. They provide a warranty for the batteries. However, when a battery fails to follow the limits, it will stop working in less than a quarter of its life expectancy. That’s why a good charge controller needs to be installed to control your power system.